Last updated Tue Jun 16 14:29:39 EDT 1998
"RF sampling gates: a brief review", N. P. Akers, E. Vilar
IEE Proc., part A , Jan. 1986, 133#1, pages 45-49
A brief review of sampling, circa 1985. They describe a sampling gate built using a dual-gate MOSFET.

"Modeling of the feed-though wideband (DC to 12.4 GHz) Sampling Head", Sedki M. Riad, Norris S. Nahman
Proc. IMTC 1978 , , pages 267-269
First publication of a detailed analysis of the HP 1430 Sampling head. See the journal publication for more.

"Phase-locked DRO uses a sampling phase detector", K. V. Puglia
Microwaves & RF , Jul. 1993, pages 103-111
How to phase lock a microwave DRO by using a sampling phase detector as part of the phase lock loop.

"Recent developments in the calibration of fast sampling oscilloscopes", D. Henderson, A. G. Roddie, A. J. A. Smith
IEE Proc., part A , Sep. 1992, 139#5, pages 254-260
They compare a) stepped frequency b) kick-out and c) electro-optic sampling for measuring frequency response of sampling oscilloscopes.

"Recent developments in the calibration of fast sampling oscilloscopes", D. Henderson, A. G. Roddie
Meas. Sci. Tech. , 1990, 1, pages 673-679
They describe the use of a picosecond laser and a photodiode for generating sampling pulses.

"Sampling for Oscilloscopes and Other RF Systems: DC through X-Band", W. M. Grove
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique , Dec. 1966, MTT-14#12, pages 629-635
A classic. This describes the HP 1430 series sampling head (also used on the 8410 Network Analyzer). But the detailed analysis was done by Riad.

"Large-Signal Model of Picosecond FET's and measurement of step response", A. Ouslimani, G. Vernet, P. Crozat, R. Adde
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique , Sep. 1987, 37#9, pages 1460-1464
Describes a model of a MESFET that is used by a related paper in a sampler.

"A 2.4 Ghz MESFET Sampler", H. Hafdallah, G. Vernet, R. Adde
Electronics Letters , 4 Feb. 1988, 24#3, pages 151-153
A sampler is constructed from a MESFET rather than from diodes.

"Advancements in Picosecond Resolution Time Interval Measurement Techniques", L. Dobos
IEEE IMTC , 1994, pages 13-14
A brief description of the time base and time interval measurement of the Tektronix 11801 and TDS820 series.

"Compensation of Timing Jitter-Induced Distortion of Sampled Waveforms", Jan Verspecht
IEEE Trans. on Inst. & Measurement , Oct 1994, 43#5, pages 726-732
Timing jitter is the difference between the sampling strobe and the actual timing gate closure. This paper discusses how to compensate for the statistical nature of this difference.

"Broadband Sampling Oscilloscope Characterization with the "Nose-to-Nose" Calibration Procedure: A Theoretical and Practical Analysis", Jan Verspecht
IEEE Trans. on Inst. & Measurement , Dec. 1995, 44#6, pages 991-997
Detailed analysis of a clever idea: a sampler generates pulse which can be measured at the input connector of the sampler. Using another sampler, this pulse can be measured and compared with the model of the sampler.

"A DC-to-20 Ghz Thin-Film Signal Sampler for Microwave Instrumentation", J. Merkelo
HP Journal , 1973, pages 10-13
Describes the sampler behind the 5340 (and 5342) counters. It uses a slot line to balance the gate pulse with the signal line. VSWR is less than 1.7 over the entire frequency range.

"Broad-band Thin-film Signal Sampler", J. Merkelo, R. D. Hall
IEEE J. Solid State Circuits , Feb. 1972, SC-7#1, pages 50-54
A nice description of the design of a thin-film sampler good to 20 GHz.

"A 20 GHz Microwave Sampler", K. Madani, C. S. Aitchison
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques , Oct 1992, 40#10, pages 1960-1963
A modern description of a sampler with exceptional isolation. The microstrip-slotline balun is new.

"Gallium Arsenide Lowers Cost and Improves Performance of Microwave Counters", S. R. Gibson
HP Journal , Feb. 1986, pages 4-10
Describes the creation of a single GaAs sampler circuit for use in a microwave counter.

"Determination of Schottky Diode Sampling Mixer Frequency Response from Diode Conduction Waveforms", G. G. Raleigh, J. V. Bellantoni
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques , Apr. 1993, 41#4, pages 723-726
Using a model of the sampling diode, a mathematical model is derived for the sampling circuit. This is simulated and then compared against experimental data.

"System for Precise Observations of Repetitive Picosecond Pulse Waveforms", B. J. Elliot
IEEE. Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement , Nov. 1970, IM-19#4, pages 391-395
Uses two sampling oscilloscopes to compensate for sampling jitter.

"Random Sampling Oscillography", G. J. Frye, N. S. Nahman
IEEE. Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement , Mar. 1964, pages 8-13
Describes the second (but modern) random sampling time base. This is the foundation of the Tektronix 3T77 and 7T11 timebases. Schematics are given.

"GaAs Nonlinear Transmission Lines for Picosecond Pulse Generation", M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Kamegawa, R. Yu, M. Case, E. Carman, K. Giboney
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques , Jul. 1991, 39#7, pages 1194-
Using diodes as nonlinear shapers, this paper describes a monolithic GaAs circuit that generates extremely fast pulses for millimeter wave sampling.

"Random Sampling Oscilloscope for the Observation of Mercury Switch Closure Transition Times", J. R. Andrews
IEEE. Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement , Dec. 1973, pages 375-381
An abbreviated version of an NBS report.

"Sampling Oscilloscope Circuits", J. Mulvey, A. Zimmerman, J. Weber, J. Bookout
Tektronix, Inc. 1970
A classic. A combination of circuit and system theory from Tektronix manuals. Great bedtime reading.

"Subharmonic Sampling of Microwave Signal Processing Requirements", P. A. Weisskopf
Microwave Journal , May. 1992, pages 239-
A description of a sampling phase detector including a nice description of pulse compression techniques and their implementation.

"A High Precision RF Vector Analyzer based on Synchronous Sampling", R. Courteau, T. K. Bose
IEEE ITMC , 1993, pages 10-15
A home built vector analyzer with a fairly complete description.

"50 GHz Sampler Hybrid Utilizing a Small Shockline and an Internal SRD", W. C. Whitely, W. E. Kunz, W. J. Anklam
IEEE MTT-S Digest , 1991, pages 895-898
State of the art at HP circa 1991. A small GaAs shockline is used to shorten the sampling pulse.

"An Interfacing Unit for a 28 psec Feedthrough Sampling Head and a Random Sampling Oscilloscope", J. R. Andrews
The Rev. of Sci. Instruments , Dec. 1971, 42#12
Wouldn't it be nice to connect an HP-1430 sampling head to a Tektronix 3T77 random sampling time base?

"Individual Characterization of Broadband Sampling Oscilloscopes with a "Nose-to-nose" Calibration Procedure", J. Verspecht, K. Rush
IEEE IMTC , 1993, pages 203-208
How to measure the kick-out pulse of a sampling gate.

"Random Sampling Oscilloscope Time Base", J. R. Andrews
Jun. 1973
A full description of a fully random time base (generated by a random noise diode). Also notable was the use of a phase-lock loop as a predictor. Schematics are included complete with calibration procedure. Like reading a Tektronix manual, but better.

"Sampling Notes", Unknown
Tektronix, Inc. 1964
Early technical report including description of early samplers (type N)

"A New DC-4000 MC Sampling 'scope plug-n with signal feed-through capability", W. M. Grove
HP Journal , , pages 5-8
Describes the 188 plug-in and the use of a shorted transmission line for pulse reflection

"A Scrutable Sampling Oscilloscope", W. Farnbach
HP Journal , 1975, pages 2-7
Introduction of the 180 series samplers

"A Versatile New DC-500 MC Oscilloscope with High Sensitivty and Dual Channel Display", R. Carlson
HP Journal , Jan./Mar 1960, pages 1-8
The famous 185

"An Ultra-wideband Oscilloscope based on an Advanced Sampling Device", A. I. Best, D. L. Howard, J. M. Umphrey
HP Journal , 1966, pages 1-10
Complete description of all the 140 series sampling plug-ins with particular emphasis on the 1430.

"A DC to 12.4 GHz feedthrough sampler for oscilloscopes and other RF systems", W. M. Grove
HP Journal , 1966, pages 12-15
1430 sampler with details on construction and design.

"The Kilomegacycle Sampling Oscilloscope", R. Carlson
HP Journal , Mar. 1962, 13#7

"Coherent and Incoherent Sampling",
HP Journal , Jul. 1966, 17#11

"Electrical sampling techniques", S. M. Riad
Characterization of Very High Speed Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits , SPIE 1987, 795, pages 120-131
Nice overview of sampling including various gates and their implementation in various sampling scopes.

"A Precision Sample and Hold Circuit with Subnanosecond Switching", J. R. Gray, S. C. Kitsopoulos
IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory , Sep. 1964, pages 389-396
Very early sampling gate paper with a detailed description of diode switching

"Comparison of Sampling Oscilloscopes with ~35 ps Transition Durations", J. R. Andrews
F. J. Leonberger, C. H. Lee, F. Capasso, H. Morkoc , ed. Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics II , Springer-Verlag Jan. 1987, pages 64-65
Comparison of the HP 1430s, Tek S4 and S6, PSPL S-1430D and Iwatsu SH-4B

"High Bandwidth Oscilloscope Sampling Architectures", Hewlett-Packard
Sep. 1989, 5952-0163
The advantage of sophistocated biasing of the sampling gate

"Comparison of Ultra-fast Rise Sampling Oscilloscopes", J. R. Andrews
Picosecond Pulse Labs Feb. 1989

"Construction of a broadband universal sampling head", J. R. Andrews, G. J. Witte
IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science , Feb. 1984, NS-31#1, pages 461-464
How to use the 5340 sampling gate by Merkelo for a sampling head when you can't reliably get 1430 samplers.

Created on Jun 16, 1998 at 14:27

Mark Kahrs, CAIP Center, P.O. Box 1390, Piscataway, NJ, 08855-1390
Phone: +1 732-445-6348, Fax: +1 732-445-4775

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